Ephesus A World Culture Heritage

Ephesus is perhaps the most impressive and insightful example of the implementation of the development and conservation of monuments of archeological works in the 20th century. The region where Ephesus is located seems to have been predetermined to fit the activities of settlement. However, its natural features and environmental influences, speedy delta development, many earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and climatic changes are the crucial strains of the nature of Ephesus. The people of the region had been constantly faced with moving their settlement areas to another location for the purposes of taking precautions against nature that threatened their way of life. This region full of tension was not only one of the most important cities of the ancient world home to the most important intellectuals of history such as philosopher Heraclitus, geographer Artemidorus, doctors Rufus and Sonarus, and Maximus, one of the late antiquity orators, but also had become one of the most holy places during the ancient era. However, the most important and great aspect of Ephesus in the following period was how it surpassed the shadows of the variable fate of thousands of years beginning with its establishment of small villages turning into craftsman and trade centres founded during the Neolithic era, to the settlement of Ayasuluk during the Bronze Ages, and later how it blended both local and foreign features creating a self-governing culture extending to the Greek towns. The Ephesus Artemis Temple has had a significant contribution to the fact that this area had a two thousand year history and represented a political and economic power and was not just a cultic centre. The monumental temple, which is considered to be one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, has
withdrawn many pilgrims and visitors. It also had a massive immigration region for prominent immigrants such as Arsinoe IV, the sister of Cleopatra. The reconstruction of the city by Lysimachus had become a turning point in the history of settlements whereas the great expansion and development as this had began under the administration of the Pergamon Kingdom and continued during the Roman Empire Era. Ephesus, the capital city of the wealty Asian state, had become the centre of politics, economy and administration due to its prosperous lands, natural resources and active port connections. The public construction activities and donations by individuals had contributed tremendously to the grand image of the metropolis. The affluence of the city’s elite residents and their representation needs as well as the private residences, The Terrace Houses located in the centre of the city, have all witnessed the sudden termination of this affluence with an earthquake during the 3rd century. Ephesus during the Late Antiquity Era had perceived itself to be a pilgrimage location within the Christian world. It had become a centre of attraction for many pilgrims from the Christian world with its sites such as the Basilica of St John and The Seven Sleepers. In addition to this, it was able to protect its status as being the regional, administrative and trade centre and continued its connections with the Mediterranean region. During the Aydinid Dynasty period in the second half of the 14th century, the region including the Artemis Temple and Ayasuluk Hilltops, had become the most prosperous town of the Middle Ages. The flamboyant structures that also include the unique Isa Bey Mosque are evidence of the golden age of the Turkish culture in West Anatolia. It is believed that climate changes in the 17th century had influenced the abandonment of Ancient Ephesus and Ayasuluk, resulting in the slow desolation of the Kaystros valley. Ephesus, as well as its historical significance, is also a striking and insightful example of how the city was transformed from a naturally abandoned ruin into an archeological park efficient in becoming a touristic attraction. With the initial archeological excavations
by the British and Austrians during the 19th century, the distcrits of the city had been extricated one by one and the ruins had been transformed into a liveable and understandable location. Perhaps the development of the 20th century archeological anastyloses is one of the most impressive examples of the implementation of protecting archeological monuments as seen in Ephesus. The ruins today cannot be based on a single approach; quite the contrary, it is a whole encompassing its erection with architectural study, collages and architectural works over many years. Ephesus is a distinguished example of the commercial use of a cultural heritage. Requests, targets and expectations in relation to the conservation of monuments, tourism sector and science could not have been any different. Today, Ephesus is a great excavation that is accountable in attaining various responsibilities. These include foundational research in archeological interdisciplinary fields, the conservation of monuments, the education of students, knowledge sharing, and the presentation of its administration and presentation of the sites. The conservation of the monuments and maintenance of Ephesus, which today welcomes approximately two million visitors per year, plays a crucial role.

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Sabine Ladstätter

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